Four good reasons to cite your sources – Part 2

Reason No. 3: To acknowledge the work of others

If we use the work or ideas of another person in our family history research then we need to acknowledge their work, and source citations are a good way to do that.

If you present the work or ideas of others in a way that suggests that it is your own work then you are committing plagiarism. Failing to acknowledge the work of others is not a big deal if you do not present the results of your research to others. However, you do need to cite your sources if you put your research online, or include it in a book, essay, thesis or journal article. A source citation is needed when you quote from another work; include ideas or the work of another researcher; or if you include data, images or media produced by someone else.

Just because someone has researched the same family as you, it does not always mean that you have to acknowledge their research. If you extract information from their research, then verify it using original or reliable derivative sources, then it is those sources that you cite, not their research. This is because the information is not their creative property. However, if they wrote a story about their family based on the information, then that story is their creative property and needs to be acknowledged with a source citation. In such cases, copyright may also apply and you may need to seek their permission to reproduce it.

Reason No. 4: To help you analyse the source

One of the most important and often overlooked reasons to cite your sources is that doing so helps you analyse the source, and this improves the quality of your research.

Writing a source citation forces you to examine the source more closely. You have to consider the nature of the source and why it was created. You have to identify who created the source and where it was created. You also have to identify if there is anyone with creative property rights – such as an author or a photographer. And, if it is an unpublished source, you also have to think carefully about the details required to help someone find the source for themselves.

All of the information gathered for the purpose of citing a source helps us to understand the information in the source and increases the likelihood that we will interpret the source and the information accurately.

[The image used here is believed to be in the Public Domain, but a citation won’t hurt: Harrison Fisher, Fair Americans, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1911]

Four good reasons to cite your sources – Part 1

Putting more effort into citing your sources is one of the most important things that you can do to improve your family history research.

Reason No. 1: So that you can find the source again

You may well ask ‘Why would I need to find the source again? I have extracted all the information I need and I have a copy saved onto my computer.’

Even the best researcher may miss some information, copy information inaccurately, or misinterpret information in a source. Taking time with a source, reading it thoroughly and making good notes can reduce but not eliminate the risk of these things happening. Taking a copy is useful but it does not solve the problem, because the copy that we make is usually just part of the source. It usually does not have the contextual information that may affect how the source is interpreted – for example, we may not copy title page or the page with the abbreviations on it. Examining a source again is the only solution to these problems.

When we examine a source, we do it from the perspective of what we already know about a family or locality and with a specific research question in mind. That information and that question affect how we read and interpret the source, and they influence what information we record and the pages or sections of the source that we copy. Later, when we have learned more about the family or locality or we have a different research question, the source should be examined again from the new perspective.

So, not only will you want to look at a source again, you should look at it again. So make sure you cite it.

Reason No. 2: So that others can find the source that you used

You may well ask, ‘Why should I bother helping other people with their research?’

And I’d ask, ‘Do you use other people’s research? Or do you just rely entirely on original sources?’

I don’t know how it works in other countries, but in Australia it is extremely rare to have access to original sources for family history. We rely heavily on digital images of original sources and derivative sources, including the work of other researchers. So, if we expect others to provide source citations to help us then we should do the same.

Helping others also means that you are helping yourself, because collaborating on research provides substantial benefits. The people that want to use your research are probably related to you in some way or they have similar research interests. They may have information that you do not have, or access to sources that you cannot access. Or, when they use your source citation to find the source, you may find that they have different insights into the information that could also benefit your research. If you help them by providing a source citation, you may find that they will help you in return.

Collaboration is good research practice. Help others by citing your sources.

What is a source?

One of the fundamental rules of family history research is that we need to cite our sources. To cite our sources, we need to first understand what is a source and what is not.

A source is anything that provides information for your family history research.

The most common sources used by genealogists are birth death and marriage records, censuses and electoral rolls, cemetery records, wills and probate records, newspaper articles, criminal and court records, land records, directories, military records and shipping records. Other source types may include books, journal articles, pamphlets, theses, asylum and hospital records. All of these clearly need to be cited if we use information from them.

There are also other types of documents, and even objects, which could be sources for family history. For example, a photograph is a source if it provides information about what a person looked like; maps and plans are sources if they provide information about the location and size of a building; and objects such as military medals, clothing and jewellery are sources if they provide information about a family member. Your grandmother could even be a source, if she tells you stories about your family!

An object can be a source

What about an index? Some argue that an index is just a finding aid, not a source. However, it depends on the index and how you use it. In family history, an index typically provides a little bit of identifying information such as a surname and also some information which you then use to track down sources which provide more information. In such cases, the index is just a finding aid. However, sometimes an index provides additional information, such as a spouse’s name, parents’ names, localities or a death date. If you use that information, then the index is a source. Ideally, the information provided by an index should be treated as a research lead and verified by examining the source on which the index entry is based. Until you do that, however, treat it as a source and include a source citation.

The Ryerson Index

The other ones that confuse people when they are new to family history are websites like Ancestry, Findmypast and FamilySearch. These sites are not sources, so citing information as coming from Ancestry or one of the others is not the correct practice. However, this only means that you do not have a source citation which literally just says ‘Ancestry’. It does not mean that you never cite anything from Ancestry. Ancestry and the other sites are repositories of sources, and those sources do need to be cited.

Book for my webinar about citing sources (30 March 2021) here.

Are the big genealogy sites making us lazy?

Don’t get me wrong – I love the big genealogy sites. Ancestry, FamilySearch, MyHeritage, Findmypast – just to name a few. These sites have given us easy access to an enormous volume of sources. Their collections are invaluable and they are constantly expanding their collections and introducing tools to help us use the collections. However, this ease of access and tools can also work against us as good genealogists.

Photo by Tomas Ryant from

Take source citations, for example. To save us time and help us out, the big sites provide suggested source citations. If we have an online tree on that site, we copy the information across and a source citation is automatically added without us having to do anything much at all. If we prefer to store the information on our own computer, we either type the information into our family tree or download an extract of the source (or both). We can then cut and paste the suggested source citation and add that to the information on our computer.

It is great that they help us in this way, because it reduces the likelihood of family trees without source citations. However, the problem is that this assistance can stop us from examining the sources for ourselves. When we create a source citation, we have to take time and think about what the source really is, who created it and when, and consider the features which help us determine the reliability of the source.

Sources on the big sites are gathered into collections and given a generic name, without all the subtle details of information that tells us more about the features of the source which affect their reliability. Some of us may read the explanatory notes, or use the information provided to track down and examine the original sources. But I suspect that many don’t.

So … slow down and resist the urge to let websites do all your research for you.

Start from a solid foundation

The question that everyone has when researching family history, regardless of whether they are just starting or have been doing it for many years, is – where do I start?

For new researchers, the question arises because they are unfamiliar with the process of family history research. For more experienced researchers it is because they have come to realise that there is so much research to do that it becomes overwhelming.

The standard advice given to people who are new to family history research is that you should always start with yourself. Sound advice, because if you start anywhere else you cannot be sure you are researching people who are actually related to you. However, that advice is not helpful past that point, so each time we sit down to do some research we are faced by the same question – where do I start?

The answer is research planning.

Research planning provides you with focus, in the form of research goals, questions or hypotheses; and direction, in the form of a list of tasks, sources and repositories. If you spend time on planning your research, then each time you sit down to do some research you have options for where you can start this time, and a process to keep track of what you have done and what you intend to do next. However, I am not just talking about producing a research plan based on a template, although such a plan is a very useful tool. The research planning process can be anything that helps to make your research more systematic.

A fundamental principle in research planning is that you must always start from the known and move into the unknown, or, as I like to describe it – start from a solid foundation. This means you can start your research from any person in your family history, provided you are sure that the information you have and the conclusions you have reached about that person are sound. This is the principle that underlies the instruction to start with yourself when you are just beginning.

The challenge then becomes identifying and documenting the solid foundation points in your family history so that you can use them as stepping stones for further research.

One method is to choose the person you want to start with (for any reason at all!) and verify that they are a solid foundation. To do this, you need to review all the information you already have and the sources you have already examined, and analyse whether the conclusions you have reached are sufficiently supported by the evidence. Be honest and critical – is the evidence strong, or are there doubts or inconsistencies? If the evidence is weak, then that becomes your first research task – to investigate further. Once you verify that this person is a solid foundation, then you can start moving outwards to research other people. Your first priority should be to move in the direction towards yourself, verifying that each person between your starting person and yourself is also a solid foundation. This confirms how your starting person is related to you.

Another method is to have a document or system that records where the solid foundations occur within your family tree. Each time you feel like researching, you just choose a point from that document or system. You could achieve this using family history software or research plans (and I will discuss these in later posts), but I like to use this simple tool which I call a Tree Health Assessment.

A Tree Health Assessment can be documented quite simply using a family tree chart. To use this method you must start with yourself, regardless of how long you have been researching your family history. As you assess the evidence for each person and their relationship to the previous generation you colour the line or box for that person based on your assessment. Green means the evidence is strong that you have identified the correct person and their relationship to the previous generation (e.g. father and daughter). Yellow means you have some evidence but it needs further research – for example, the evidence may be indirect or circumstantial. Red means that there are issues of concern, such as no sources, information from unreliable sources, inconsistencies or doubts about the conclusions. The solid foundations in your tree are any parts which are coloured green. Your research should always start at a point where the green person links to a yellow or red line or box (shown as a blue X in the example below). However, take care not to leap into researching a red coloured person if there are yellow ones between them and yourself, as the answers may lie in turning the yellow into a solid foundation first.