Methodology

What is a source?

One of the fundamental rules of family history research is that we need to cite our sources. To cite our sources, we need to first understand what is a source and what it is not.

A source is anything that provides information for your family history research.

The most common sources used by genealogists are birth death and marriage records, censuses and electoral rolls, cemetery records, wills and probate records, newspaper articles, criminal and court records, land records, directories, military records and shipping records. Other source types may include books, journal articles, pamphlets, theses, asylum and hospital records. All of these clearly need to be cited if we use information from them.

There are also other types of documents, and even objects, which could be sources for family history. For example, a photograph is a source if it provides information about what a person looked like; maps and plans are sources if they provide information about the location and size of a building; and objects such as military medals, clothing and jewellery are sources if they provide information about a family member. Your grandmother could even be a source, if she tells you stories about your family!

An object can be a source

What about an index? Some argue that an index is just a finding aid, not a source. However, it depends on the index and how you use it. In family history, an index typically provides a little bit of identifying information such as a surname and also some information which you then use to track down sources which provide more information. In such cases, the index is just a finding aid. However, sometimes an index provides additional information, such as a spouse’s name, parents’ names, localities or a death date. If you use that information, then the index is a source. Ideally, the information provided by an index should be treated as a research lead and verified by examining the source on which the index entry is based. Until you do that, however, treat it as a source and include a source citation.

The Ryerson Index https://www.ryersonindex.org/

The other ones that confuse people when they are new to family history are websites like Ancestry, Findmypast and FamilySearch. These sites are not sources, so citing information as coming from Ancestry or one of the others is not the correct practice. However, this only means that you do not have a source citation which literally just says ‘Ancestry’. It does not mean that you never cite anything from Ancestry. Ancestry and the other sites are repositories of sources, and those sources do need to be cited.

Book for my webinar about citing sources (30 March 2021) here.

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